Air conditioning (often referred to as A/C, AC or aircon) is the process of altering the properties of air (primarily temperature and humidity) to more comfortable conditions, typically with the aim of distributing the conditioned air to an occupied space to improve thermal comfort and indoor air quality.
Mechanical ventilation, in the healthcare setting or home, helps patients breathe by assisting the inhalation of oxygen into the lungs and the exhalation of carbon dioxide. Depending on the patientís condition, mechanical ventilation can help support or completely control breathing.
Refrigeration is a process of moving heat from one location to another. The work of heat transport is traditionally driven by mechanical work, but can also be driven by heat, magnetism, electricity, laser, or other means. Refrigeration has many applications, including, but not limited to: household refrigerators, industrial freezers, cryogenics, and air conditioning. Heat pumps may use the heat output of the refrigeration process, and also may be designed to be reversible, but are otherwise similar to refrigeration units. Refrigeration has had a large impact on industry, lifestyle, agriculture and settlement patterns. The idea of preserving food dates back to the ancient Roman and Chinese empires. However, refrigeration technology has rapidly evolved in the last century, from ice harvesting to temperature-controlled rail cars. The introduction of refrigerated rail cars contributed to the westward expansion of the United States, allowing settlement in areas that were not on main transport channels such as rivers, harbors, or valley trails. Settlements were also popping up in infertile parts of the country, filled with new natural resources. These new settlement patterns sparked the building of large cities which are able to thrive in areas that were otherwise thought to be unsustainable, such as Houston, Texas and Las Vegas, Nevada. In most developed countries, cities are heavily dependent upon refrigeration in supermarkets, in order to obtain their food for daily consumption. The increase in food sources has led to a larger concentration of agricultural sales coming from a smaller percentage of existing farms. Farms today have a much larger output per person in comparison to the late 1800s. This has resulted in new food sources available to entire populations, which has had a large impact on the nutrition of society.
Heaters are appliances whose purpose is to generate heat for the building. This can be done via central heating. Such a system contains a boiler, furnace, or heat pump to heat water, steam, or air in a central location such as a furnace room in a home, or a mechanical room in a large building. The heat can be transferred by convection, conduction, or radiation. Heaters exist for various types of fuel, including solid fuels, liquids, and gases. Another type of heat source is electricity, typically heating ribbons made of high resistance wire. This principle is also used for baseboard heaters and portable heaters. Electrical heaters are often used as backup or supplemental heat for heat pump systems.
Heat pumps can extract heat from various sources, such as environmental air, exhaust air from a building, or from the ground. Initially, heat pump HVAC systems were used in moderate climates, but with improvements in low temperature operation and reduced loads due to more efficient homes, they are increasing in popularity in other climates.
Plumbing is the system of pipes, drains, fittings, valves, and fixtures installed for the distribution of potable water for drinking, heating and washing, and waterborne waste removal. "Plumbing" also refers to the skilled trade which installs and maintains it. The plumbing industry is a basic and substantial part of every developed economy.The word derives from the Latin plumbum for lead, as the first effective pipes used in Roman era were lead pipes. "Plumbing" often denotes the supply and waste system of an individual building, distinguishing it from water supply and sewage systems that serve a group of buildings